URAM-Marketing

Unité de Recherche et d'Applications en Marketing

Les Variables de Contrôle de la Performance à l’Export : Quelques Recommandations Empiriques


Abstract:

         La négligence des variables de contrôle lors de l’étude des antécédents de la performance à l’export a engendré des lacunes au niveau de la validation des résultats empiriques, particulièrement s’agit-il des estimations biaisées ou/et de la robustesse statistique. La revue de la littérature en termes d’antécédents à la performance à l’export révèle la densité des écrits à l’égard de plusieurs variables expliquant ce construit. L’intensité de traiter les relations entre ces variables explicatives et la construit de la performance à l’export entraine une assomption méthodologique. Cette dernière consiste en la nécessité d’introduire ces variables comme contrôle statistique lorsqu’un nouveau concept suscite l’intérêt des chercheurs en faveur des activités d’exportation des firmes. Notre revue de la littérature a mis en relief cinq variables pouvant faire l’objet de contrôle statistique au niveau des études futures. Ces variables sont la taille de l’entreprise, l’expérience internationale, le dynamisme concurrentiel du secteur ou de l’industrie dans laquelle la firme agit, les ressources vouées à l’exportation et l’expérience du manager en matière d’exportation.

         Afin de pouvoir mettre en évidence le rôle des variables de contrôle, nous avons procédé à l’explication de la performance à l’export par la compétitivité des PMEs exportatrices en comparant en premier lieu la relation positive de la compétitivité et de la performance sans contrôle statistique et avec contrôle statistiques. Pour se faire, une enquête a été menée auprès de 39 PMEs exportatrices en distribuant un questionnaire. L’analyse des données a mis en évidence une transformation de terme d’erreur (variance), ainsi que des problèmes de colinéarité se sont révélés. Quelques recommandations ont été avancées suite à cette analyse.

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